Introduction

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic viral fever (CCHF) is a deadly viral disease found in human begins. This is a zoonotic viral infection which is mainly acquired from the domesticated animals. The Nairo virus is responsible for getting Crimean-Congo. This virus is classified in group V in unassigned order. It’s from the family of Bunyaviridae. Its Genus is Nairovirus forming the species of CCHF. In 1944 the first case was reported in Crimea in Ukraine and in 1969 in Congo. Hence the disease name Crimean-Congo acquired from the cities where it was deducted first. The USA has listed it in CDC/NIAID C Category of high priority pathogen. The early symptoms are diarrhea, fever and vomiting. It is curable with Ribavirin antiviral drug. The CCHF is prominent in Africa, Asia and Middle-East countries.

Spread and Symptoms

CCHF virus is mostly spread in the regions were the ticks population is more. They infect cattle and humans directly or indirectly. It can be acquired by the tick bites or by consuming the meat of infected cattle. If a human gets infected, its symptoms can be seen within a week’s time or by maximum of 2 weeks time. The majority of the human population infected by the virus belongs to the working class involved with cattle, live stocks and allied activities. The Agro farm industry people are found with this disease mostly. Thus, it spreads mostly where these people live – either in farms or surrounded areas. The place where it is located is rapidly hit, once the outbreak is seen. Its symptoms are initially seen as myalgia, photophobia, dizziness, backache, sore eyes, headache, neck pain and stiffness. These symptoms are elevated to diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, sore throat and vomiting which may result in confusion and mood swings. After 2 to 4 days, the unrest may be subbed and replaced by the hepatomegaly, lassitude, dopiness and abdominal pain. Whenever high fever is seen with the above symptoms, an immediate check up with a nearby physician is a must.

Prevention and Cure

Crimean-Congo can be prevented by keeping our self and the live stock in neat and clean environment. The main cause is the ticks, but these can’t be totally removed off from a region due to its tiny presence. The only way is to use full sleeves shirts and full trousers while going out. The light color clothing can detect the presence of ticks, hence found helpful to detect these tiny ticks. As far as live stocks are concerned, use permitted chemical to clean the live stock farms. Since there are no vaccines developed so far to use on cattle or human beings, the farm workers must wear protective dress and gears, as they are the in first contact with ticks. The Ribavirin is the only antiviral drug in use to treat CCHF affected patients. These are given to a patient by conducting a series of blood tests in the lab. The dosage may vary depending on the impact of the virus on human body. The severity of the disease can be deducted by conducting the tests to find the presence of RNA virus in blood. The usual tests consists of cell culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction assay (RT-PCR), serum neutralization and antigen detection. Only the dose of antiviral drugs is increased if a patient is found in more fatal stage.

Research and Development

Since 1970’s the CCHF outbreaks are seen as an epidemic in African countries. A large number of research and development (R&D) programs are undertaken. The modern approach in the medicinal fields is to perform the research activity using advanced equipments and even split the research in many branches. Medical professionals are now engaged in various branches of R&D like therapy, diagnostics, preparedness, prevention, and epidemiology. These branches are integrated and doing R&D work privately also. The American and European countries have invested huge money on these R&D programs. There are many vaccines developed by these R&D work and are waiting for the FDA approval, since 2011. All of these vaccines have passed the clinical tests already. The recent tests are going on in the field of virology and immunology, since the vaccines are high risk with toxicities to humans when the dosage is increased in medication process.

History of Crimean-Congo

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever’s first account was seen in the 12th century AD in Tajikistan. In the modern world it was reported in many parts of Russia since 1944. Later years saw the spread of this deadly viral disease in many parts of Asian countries. The 1970’s saw the worst fatal epidemics by CCHF in Congo of the African regions. Thousands were dead due to improper knowledge and medications. Nearly 45% of the infected were dead due to wide spared CCHF. The recent CCHF outbreaks were seen in Middle East, Africa, South East Europe and Asian countries. Pakistan is a vital place for CCHF epidemics outbreak since past 2 decades. In 1995, Zaire scavenging workers were affected by this deadly virus; nearly 300 people were reported by their health department officially. In 2008, a major CCHF outbreak was reported in Quetta a city in Baluchistan region. Nearly 35% of the reported cases are dead due to this viral disease as per various health department reports.

Conclusion

Crimean-Congo is mostly transmitted by ticks. Hence the cattle farms must be protected from its entry by using advanced permitted chemicals to be used in farms and cattle feed areas. The live stock workers must take utmost care by using protective gloves and dresses in their work areas. Humans must take care of themselves by keeping the environment clean. Avoid the areas were live stocks are found in plenty. Various health departments must function with the governmental and non governmental agencies to create awareness and teach the masses how to prevent from this viral disease. Do not consume flesh meats in the known season of the CCHF epidemics. People living in cattle fed areas must examine for CCHF if they are caught with fever and the body temperature is above 100 degree Fahrenheit. They must go for an immediate medical checkup. Avoid travelling to those CCHF affected region. Still an effective vaccine is not developed in the world; the antiviral drugs are the only treatment available for curing this deadly viral disease.