Introduction

Dengue fever or the Break Bone fever is caused by the dengue virus. It is mostly transmitted by the female mosquitoes. Its syndromes are joint pain, low BP, skin rashes along with high fever. The deadly type of it is the dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is associated with low blood pressure. As per the latest medical surveys, nearly 110 countries are affected by the dengue fever with an estimate of more than 5 million populations got infected. Since the World War II it is a common epidemic breakout seen all over the world, mostly the tropical zones. There is no permanent vaccine developed so far but research is going on in this field. This is a curable fever predominately found in Central America, South East Asia and South African countries. When these epidemics break out, it’s advisable to take an antiviral vaccine in advance.

Spread and Symptoms

The wide spread of dengue fever is caused by the Aedes Aegypti, which is a type of mosquitoes. Female Aedes Aegypti are responsible to spread the disease. When these mosquitoes bite an infected person, they do get infected within a week time. When they bit a normal or a healthy person, he or she gets infected within 3-14 days time. Thus infected mosquitoes infect humans by mosquito bites and as the number of such infected people arises, the risk of further spread as an epidemic also increases. The main signs and symptoms of the dengue fever are severe headache, severe pain behind the eyes associated with mild bleeding, joint pain, and rashes on the skin and bone pain. All of these symptoms are commonly found with a very high fever.

Prevention and Cure

Dengue fever can be prevented by keeping our homes and surrounding in hygienic condition. Water is the main source for the mosquitoes to lay the eggs. Therefore don’t keep any open containers and vessels outside your homes. Close or cover those entire pit holes dug for drain water, rain water catchments outside your home. Use insect screens on your doors and windows to keep away from mosquito. Always wear full sleeves loose shirts and full trousers during the mosquito seasons. Socially the government and allied health department must sprinkle insect killer chemicals in the open drainage and open garbage areas. They should use the smoke form of insect killers and spread them in the close residential areas. The spread can be stopped by clearing away any stagnated water bodies in the residential areas. Dengue fever can be diagnosed and confirmed by various blood tests. Since there are no vaccines so far developed to prevent this killer virus, one has to take proper measures by taking more precautions from getting mosquito bites. The mosquito bites in the day time are more dangerous than in the night time. Doctors usually provide pain killers to relive the joint pains, which are the main symptoms. The antiviral drug is mostly given to the patients to get relieved from this disease.

Research and Development

There are many research programs carried out in various countries, but so far no effective vaccine is discovered to kill this deadly virus. The research activities are undergoing as basic research which are taking place in all medical fields. The diagnosis research is mostly conducted by many pharmacy majors. Treatment research and prevention research are also carried out at many public and private clinics and hospitals and by the health organizations. The latest research and development include dengue pathogenesis and vector biology. The right coordination and sharing of information gathered by various health departments is necessary to develop a reliable medicine to totally kill this deadly virus.

History of Dengue Fever

China was the first country to record such symptoms in between 265-420 AD. This was reported as water born disease related with files and insects. But, the Jin Dynasty’s records were true to inform it as a disease spread by flies. The 17th century saw the increase in slave trade, when infected peoples were taken all over the world. Thus many countries were exposed to the new deadly virus. Due to this slave trade, it spread across Asia and North America. Records also indicate that this disease was prevalent in the African continent since 17th century AD. The first dengue epidemics were reported in 1779-1780 AD in parts of North America, Asia and African countries. In the 20th century, many scientists confirmed that it is caused by a deadly virus and listed it in the 2nd order next to the Yellow Fever. The World War II 1939 to 1945 caused much ecologic disruption over the world and gave rise to dengue hemorrhagic fever. In 1953 and 1970 there were reports from the Philippines and south Central America of such cases. Still there are a few outbreaks reported in the south East Asian countries due to bad environmental conditions. Children suffer the most by this disease and their mortality rate is also high when such epidemic outbreaks take places. So far it is confirmed by the known records that millions of peoples have died due to dengue fever.

 

Conclusion

The dengue fever is non contiguous disease and does not affect in the social environments by contact of peoples. The only way to prevent is to take precautionary steps to prevent mosquito bites. These are common in tropical countries where these mosquitos are able to multiply their population very quickly and spread this virus rapidly. Hence, it is advisable not to travel in the tropical countries when the mosquito fed season is prevailing. Health departments must take necessary steps to prevent the wide spread of mosquitoes in breeding seasons. Many countries use insect killer smoke in the congested areas to kill them, but these insects can’t be totally cleared off from an area. Many dengue awareness programs must be conducted prior to the dengue seasons, so that local masses can take some precautions and get benefited. Since there is no permanent cure, one has to be cautious and conscious about these epidemics. Some of the high risk countries are India, South East Asia, the African continent and South America.