Introduction

Ebola is a fatal virus found in humans which causes hemorrhagic fever. It is also known as Zaire Ebola Virus in short EBOV. It also infects the animals. The epidemics caused by it is called the EVD i.e. Ebola Virus Disease. This is a deadly virus spread through animals to humans by direct or indirect contacts. But when found infected, it is a contagious disease, which spread rapidly in human beings and animals. Acute care must be taken when such epidemic outbreak happens. Its name is adopted from the Ebola River where its second epidemic outbreak was reported in Congo. It is predominantly detected in the African continent. It is classified in the Mononegavirales order of Filoviridae class which causes internal bleeding and high fever. Recently a vaccine is discovered and is pending for approval to test with human beings.

Spread and Symptoms

Ebola is mostly spread by the fruit bats which is the main carrier of the infected virus. These animals are found infected by this virus and it is spread by decaying of dead animals, its flesh, fluids and direct contact with infected animal. These viruses when contacted with human beings are also contagious by the human body secretions of fluids, by bloods and mucous membranes or by direct skin contacts. Either the body fluids of animals are the sole reason to infect human beings. The symptoms of EVD are detectable from 2 to 21 days after getting infected with Ebola virus. The symptoms can be seen as sore throat, muscle pain, headache, high fever and fatigue. These are accompanied with rashes on the skin, internal bleeding, diarrhea, afflicted liver and kidney function and vomiting. The laboratory test may reveal the presence of lofty liver enzymes, depleted white blood cell and a low platelet counts.

Prevention and Cure

Ebola disease can be prevented by not consuming the birds and animal flesh at the onset of any epidemic outbreaks. Also avoid touching the domesticated cattle or visiting commercial cattle farm areas. In this way one can prevent the transmission from animals. The human to human contacts is the major issue when coming in to public places. Since human contacts will result in wide spread of the epidemic to other people. In this case peoples must wear proper full sleeves shirts and full trousers while going out. Use protective mask on nose. Being neat and clean by yours self will be helpful. Dispose the deceased animal and humans at remote places and with assistance from the health department. The heal department must take measures to prevent it further with the help of scavenging workers. There is no valid vaccine developed till now. All EVD cases are treated with antibiotic drugs, various medicines given to improve the immune system and other drug therapies which could help to cure from this deadly disease.

Research and Development

In 2004, a newly developed vaccine was tested on the animals and the result was good. But this is still not approved by the FDA and other the medical associations to use on humans, so cannot be launched worldwide. The West African countries are engaged in many research activities to find a solution for these deadly diseases, since they are the most affected by these epidemics. Many scientists and researchers visit the African countries to study the animal environmental conditions and how they affect the humans living here. They do collect samples from the animal and humans to do their research activities. These activities are undertaken in the remote villages and nearby the forest areas to search for the infected animals. The USA and European countries too have invested in Ebola research to safe guard their county from EVD epidemics. There are mainly practical tests undertaken on animals and many of the research works show some developments. Only the main factor is to get it okayed from the FDA authorities.

History of Ebola

The history of Ebola Virus Disease is known since 1976 in Zaire of Central Africa. At that time this was popularly called as the Zaire ebolavirus. The same year the epidemics once again broke out near the Ebola River in Congo, since then it is known as the Ebola disease. Since the first case of EVD, many similar outbreaks took place in the African countries. In 1989, a few imported monkeys were brought to Virginia and Texas, these monkeys were found infected and a timely action was taken to prevent the spread of EVD there. In 2007 once again Congo was found affected with the Ebola on more than 250 cases. In 2008 Philippines was affected by the Ebola-Reston virus (RESTV) outbreaks. Many cattle farm workers involved with pigs were infected with the virus. Recent EVD epidemics occurred in March 2014 in West Africa, where more than 500 cases were reported of EVD and nearly 300 were dead due to EVD. This recent outbreak generated panic among other countries. They geared up to take preventive measures soon and many countries stopped trading with African countries still it was reported under control. Hence Congo region is the origin of Ebola virus and the virus is still hunting in this region for more than four decades. So far the country has not been able to restrict its spread among the animals, which are the main cause of this deadly viral disease.

Conclusion

Ebola is an animal transmitted virus to humans causing communicable deadly disease if not treated on time. It is not impossible to kill all those animals from the world which will cause an imbalance in the environment. Since there is no perfect treatment available one has to be more cautious in animal fed areas. The governmental health workers must educate the local masses of the EVD and how to prevent it. Preventive measures must be taught to the people working with these animals. People must avoid public places during outbreaks, as the chances of getting infected indirectly are higher. One should not travel to those countries where this EVD is prominently seen. Avoid eating animal flesh during the times of such epidemic outbreaks. The entire African continent is at the outmost risk due to the presence of infected animals, mainly the fruit bats that spread this deadly disease from other animals to humans.