Introduction

Hepatitis B or HBV is a viral infection caused in the liver of human beings. If it is not treated on time, it may lead to initial stage liver damage. This may later develop as Liver Cancer. The medical name for its diagnosis is called HBsAg. This virus is transmitted to humans by blood contamination by direct or indirect contacts. HbsAg is curable if treated in the former stage; it is deadlier than HIV if not treated till the later stage. HbsAg cure is there all over the world since 1982. There were 350 million chronic cases as estimated by W.H.O. in the recent times. This is predominant in African and Asian countries. Hepatitis B is preventable by taking HBV Vaccine in advance.

Spread and Symptoms

The spread of Hepatitis B may be chronic. It is also spread by pregnant women who are infected by the HBV; most of the newborns of such cases are infected with the HBV. This is also spread by unhygienic hospitals, where the infectious blood stains are seen everywhere. Also, use of common surgical equipments without proper sterilization and other blood stained bandage materials used for patients can cause the infection. It is also caused by HBV infected blood transfusion, sharing a common razor with an infected person, tattooing on skin, being homosexual, common sharing of drugs by infected needles and by traveling to HBV infected regions. Presently it spreads mainly due to avoiding or postponing Hepatitis B vaccination. This is the major cause of spreading the disease among human beings. The symptoms of HBV are associated with the itchy skin, body aches, loss of appetite, general ill-health, mild fever, vomiting, dark urine and nausea. If not treated in the initial stage, this may lead to jaundice in HBV infected persons. The HBV can spread within a week and cause liver damage very soon which may not be recognized by a patient.

Prevention and Cure

From 1991 onwards the HBV is preventable with the help of Hepatitis B vaccinations. The vaccine is approved by FDA and WHO for world wide release. It can be taken by all age groups of people including new born children. The other preventive measures are: if an HBV infected person is residing with you, avoid unprotected sex. Do not share razors or any sort of gadgets that may get you a blood infection. This can also be prevented by not taking infected blood transfusion and not using surgical instruments which are shared in clinics which may be contaminated with blood stains. The diagnosis for Hepatitis B is called HBsAg which means hepatitis B surface antigen. The HBV clinical test is well known as assays which are carried out of various blood tests on the viral antigen and viral antibodies. From 1982 the Hepatitis B vaccination is available and since then the reports are very rare to be seen in the world. The advanced stages are also treated with antiviral drugs known as interferon or tenofovir.

Research and Development

Hepatitis B research and development is carried out by many countries of the world. It is an institutional study in many of the European and American countries where students take this Hepatitis B as a research subject and do some real time findings related to this virus. Such type of integrated studies may develop a timely and reliable know how for all in the research fields. There are many virologists associated with many major labs and pharmacy companies to develop a permanent cure to the HBV chronic viral disease. In 1980s a new Hepatitis B vaccine was developed by a group of virologists and the WHO approved it to go global to cure this viral disease since 1986. Presently, the research and development is going on to find a permanent cure for the chronic HBV disease. Since this is a prominent disease known even after the new vaccines are available in the health centers all over the world. If this chronically spreading disease can be stopped, then the world will be free from HBV diseases.

History of Hepatitis B

The first epidemic of HBV was reported in the year 1885 in Breman City of Germany. Here 1300 shipyard workers were found infected and reached the extreme stage of jaundice. Many were given vaccination available that time and this was said to be a serum hepatitis. The miscopy test revealed the presence of this virus in 1947 by Mac Callum. Since 1970s with the help of electron microscope the sequencing of its genome were done and reported in 1980. In the year 1986 the Hepatitis B vaccine was developed to cure this viral disease known as HBV. Since 1989 there was much advancement in technologies used in medical lab equipments and many virologists were able to find and develop more reliable cure for the disease. Dr.Baruch Blumberg was the first person to discover this deadly virus known as the Hepatitis B virus. In 1976 he was the receiver of Noble Prize in the field of medicines. In the year 2010 the W.H.O. gave approval to observe July 28h of every year as Hepatitis Day world over. In 2007 the World Hepatitis Alliance was found to help with the world’s health and related societies to promote prevention and treat mental aspects of HBV world over.

Conclusion

Hepatitis B does not spread by using common utensils, by kissing, or being at mass public places. This is a fatal disease if not medicated on time. This may come like a flu fever and is treatable if detected within a week’s time. Few cases are also found with vanishing away of this virus in a patient without medication. The HBV can be cured and prevented in advance by taking Hepatitis B vaccinations. As per W.H.O. report there were 400 million peoples infected with HBV. To prevent from HBV it is always advised not to share any articles or materials that may contain human blood stains. This is a chronic disease now and free from communicable since the HBV vaccine is available. Still the chronic HBV is present in China and South East Asian countries, the entire African continent, Northern parts of Canada, and Middle East.