Introduction

Hepatitis C or HCV is caused by stranded RNA virus found to be positive in human blood cells. The chronic carriers may sometimes have the asymptomatic syndrome and will be found with any other diagnosis in the later stage, these type of late detection is highly fatal in HCV affected peoples. The HCV is mostly seen in peoples with HIV positive cases rather than the negative cases. When found with HIV positive cases it is adding more risk to life. The major cause of the spread of this virus is due to infectious blood which may be incurred directly or indirectly by humans. This virus will damage the liver function totally, if not diagnosed in time. But this is commonly caused by infected blood transfusion. The Asian and the African countries are very prone to Hepatitis C infection.

Spread and Symptoms

The intravenous drug use or IDU is the main cause of spreading HCV; these are spread by pathogenic bloods. So far 60% are caused by drug use through injections. 15% spread is caused by sexual contacts mainly through unprotected sex with multiple partners. Only 10% of the HCV infections are caused by blood transfusion. The 5% of HCV is caused by health care workers; hemo-dialysis and other cases reported are prenatal in nature. In the remaining 10% of the HCV cases, we are still not able to trace out the actual reasons of spreading. The place where it is spread mostly is the medical test labs, clinics and hospitals by unsafe practices in medical or surgical procedures. The symptoms of HCV are weight loss followed by decreased appetite, dark urine, muscle and joint pains, Stomach pain, nausea, itchy skin, fatigue and eyes and skin color change to yellow. These symptoms may be undefined in many cases. If left undiagnosed may result in fatal conditions.

Prevention and Cure

Hepatitis C infection can be prevented by taking acute care while in diagnosis for any kind of treatments. One has to check for the right use of medical procedures is followed in treatments. The use of separate disposable medical equipments will save you from such type of transmission by infected blood. Never share a needle in clinics or hospitals and also in drug injecting activities carried out in a group. Never go for tattooing your body. If it is a must, check out if sterilize stuffs are used for tattooing or piercing. The health care workers must be more cautious, since they are the first to get infected with the contaminated blood. They must always be protective by using gloves and other protective gears at work and while disposing medical wastes. The diagnosis for Hepatitis C can be confirmed by various levels of blood tests and body examination. These are done by viral loads, genotype and cirrhosis tests. Kindly note that there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C and only antiviral drugs are used fitting in to the level of infection for the HCV cases. Apart from prescribing antiviral drugs, the physicians usually advise to take protein rich food and drink, drink more fluids and say no to alcohol consumption. With regular checkups and by following the advice of your physician, effects of the disease can be reduced.

Research and Development

Hepatitis C vaccines are still under developmental phases only. There are many clinical trials undergoing in developed counties. This is associated with many research institutes and with pharmacy major giants. They are working together to share the knowhow principal and are trying to bring out an effective vaccine very soon. There are many animal tests taking place and a few research works are waiting for approvals. Recent research by a virologist states that whenever jaundice is caused, it is advisable to check for HCV presence after conducting various blood tests.

History of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C type was not confirmed till 1970s. During these phases only the Hepatitis A and B were known to the world. But, the C type was in discussion with many virologists who found in sample case studies as a miracle presence of this type of virus. In 1988 these were published in the science journals, but it took a decade to do further research on this type. From the year 2000 onwards, a rapid increase in HCV cases was reported. Since Hepatitis A and B vaccines are available, the HCV infection became prominent presence in the world. This was also noticed with the most of the HIV cases all over the world. Since then rapid developmental activities were conducted in the pharmacy and medical fields to bring out an effective treatment and a permanent cure by developing a vaccine for HCV cases. Recently the W.H.O. declared that there are 200 million cases of Hepatitis C infected peoples in this world and the mortality rate of around 3% is seen among these cases as of 2007 as concluded year. Presently there is a vast research happening in the field of virology and medicines for developing a perfect vaccination for Hepatitis C

Conclusion

The chronic HCV is the most dangerous among its carriers, since they spread it mostly through body contacts. These types of cases will not have any type of symptoms for a longer period, but the virus remains active in the body until it causes severe damages to the body after many years. Since there is no vaccine developed so far, it is advisable to get diagnosed from standard medical centers that follow proper medical procedures while conducting treatments and surgeries. Be careful in such places where contact with blood is more. While going for blood transfusion and organ transplants, check for uninfected blood and organs free from Hepatitis virus. When yellow fever is found it is advisable to check for Hepatitis C infections if any. The chronic HCV cases are prominent all over the world and it is advisable for a medical checkup yearly to find such chronic infection. It can be treated at an earlier stage. A 10–50% of HCV cases are more frequently found with young people both male and female. These are commonly seen in Asia, Africa, Middle East, Latin America, Western Europe and North America.