Introduction

Rotavirus is a deadly virus affecting infant’s small intestine causing severe diarrhea, which may cause death if not medicated. It mostly spreads through fecal to oral route by direct or indirect contact with feces. This Virus is classified in the 3rd Group of dsRNA. It is found in the unassigned order. The main family is Reoviridae and belongs to the subfamily of Sedoreovirinae. Its genus is Rotavirus having a sub type of Rotavirus A, B, C and E. The type B is commonly known as the ADRV (adult diarrhea rotavirus). This also breaks out like epidemics and the children are mostly affected. This is a curable disease and more precautionary measures must be taken as self help by people. Nearly 500,000 children are affected with Rotavirus and the mortality rate is about 1% due to lack of proper medication. The diarrhea and vomiting are mostly seen in the infected children. This is predominantly found in the developing countries like African and Asian countries.

Spread and Symptoms

Rotavirus is spread through fecal contaminations. There are trillions of germs found in 1 gram of feces. These are hazardous, when directly or indirectly consumed with contaminated waters by humans and animals. This is a prominent case where the drinking water pipe lines are laid in parallel with drainage systems. Most of the drainage germs mix with the drinking water and people consume it by drinking and cooking by this contaminated water. Among children it is spread through hands, toys and by diapers. This also spreads in the family where toilets are not clean and properly maintained. In adults it is seen as caused by rimming activities done before an indulging in sex. The annulings is a major cause of direct infection when partners stimulate the anal areas by hands, lips and tongue to get sexual arousal in man and feel sexual orgasm in women. The annulings when done with multiple partners are more risky. The symptoms are Rotavirus gastroenteritis, vomiting, dehydration, low fever, diarrhea and vomiting

Prevention and Cure

The only prevention that can be done is by keeping your home environment clean. When children are at home it is advisable to clean your floors daily with germ killer solutions to get rid of germs and bacteria of small children’s excreta. Clean the toilet too. Never use contaminated water if found smelly like drainage or having a color of drain water mix. Use diapers for children. Wash your hand with detergents when contacted with feces. Never use river water which is contaminated with drain waters for cooking, drinking and bathing. If you have no other source of water available in your area, try to boil this contaminated water and filter it before using. Also keep the cattle areas clean from feces. Before indulging in rimming jobs with your partners or multiple partners, please ensure that the anal areas are cleaned with germ killers or with soap. This way direct contact of feces can be avoided by annulings activity. The cure for Rotavirus is mostly done by oral rehydration. Since severe diarrhea is the main sign and the treatment is given according the symptom analysis. The intravenous (IV) fluids are injected through veins if a patient is found more serious. Rotavirus vaccination of oral type is available worldwide and it can be used for infants and children to prevent Rotavirus infection.

Research and Development

Presently the Rotavirus vaccines like RV1 and RV5 are in use worldwide. These vaccines have remarkable results and are used till now as preventive measures for children. There are also many studies conducted to kill these germs and virus by chemicals that can be used in contaminated water bodies and the source areas. The main study is related to gastroenteritis, which is a serious case in infants and the mortality is also high in these cases. The research is also conducted on animals to study virus to cell interactions and related study is also undertaken on humans. Currently this topic is taken as a research studies in the universities and other medical fields to develop more advanced medication for Rotavirus infection. Many pharmacy companies are in the research and development field and some medicines developed by these companies are found successful in animals. These medicines are still pending for approval for worldwide use.

History of Rotavirus

The first sample study related to severe diarrhea and vomiting was carried out by Horace Hodes an American pediatrician and Jacob Light in 1943. They carried out research on animals and humans and were the first to analyze gastroenteritis in children. In the year 1974 Sir Thomas Henry Flewett, who was a renowned virologist from the United Kingdom was the first person to see this virus through an electron microscope and the first person to name this as Rotavirus. By another four years of research he came to conclusion that this Rotavirus is responsible for acute gastroenteritis, when experimented with humans and animals. In the year 1998 the Rotavirus vaccines were discovered and were approved by the W.H.O. for using it all over the world. Since than many immunization program were carried out by the W.H.O. in coordination with various health departments and non governmental agencies to propagate awareness and to get immunized by these vaccines to be spared from severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis.

Conclusion

Rotavirus infection is treatable by vaccines and by keeping ourselves neat and clean. If not treated on time, it may lead to death in the infants and children due to severe dehydration. Many under developed countries still use the mix of salt and sugar water for treating such cases. It is advisable to consult with a physician if such symptoms found. The underdeveloped countries like the Asian and the African countries are mostly affected due to feces contamination. Government authorities must take sever steps to avoid drainage contamination with drinking water supply. Drinking water pipes should not be laid alongside the drainage channels or pipes. Frequent germ killers must be sprayed in all areas of unhygienic settlements. It is advisable to stop rimming jobs by partners for not getting infected directly. Going for vaccination in advance can prevent you from getting such infections.