Introduction

Yellow fever is an acute viral disease also known as the Yellow Plague and the Yellow Jack. This Virus is classified in the 4th Group of ssRNA in unassigned order. The RNA virus is the main cause of Yellow fever. It belongs to the family of Flaviviridae and the genus of Flavivirus. These species is called as Yellow fever virus (YFV). The Aedes Aegypti type of mosquitoes is the main cause of spreading the YFV in to human beings. So far there is no effective vaccine developed to treat YFV. The symptoms of the disease are seen with yellow skin along with nausea and fever. This is curable disease if treated in first phase and mostly found in the South America and Central African countries.

Spread and Symptoms

Haemogogus and Aedes species of mosquitoes are vastly responsible to spread Yellow fever to human beings. These mosquitoes are commonly seen in the wild and human settlement areas. From the wild these mosquitoes mostly get this virus from the monkeys. The virus is mostly seen among the forest dwellers and forest workers like loggers. These mosquitoes do fly towards the urban areas and spread the virus in the domestic residential areas by biting humans. Here its vectors get spread across soon due to contamination of garbage and wastes spread in the residential areas. Its larva do spread this virus to humans by the contaminated waters around your home and open water resources and drainages. When we drink such contaminated water it is very easy to get infected without a mosquito bite. When, these mosquitoes from the wild and domestic areas bite the humans, the YFV is transmitted in to the human blood directly by the mosquito bites. The initial phase of YFV signs and symptoms are associated with vomiting, chills, loss of appetite, headache, and back pain along with fever. The second phase is severe case associated with liver damage causing jaundice in humans and pain in the abdominal areas. It also causes damage to the gastrointestinal tract; the virus is found in blood strains in the vomit.

Prevention and Cure

Yellow fever is a mosquito born disease and it is only controllable by adopting the self precautionary ways to prevent mosquito bites. Humans can prevent mosquitoes by using bed nets in bed rooms or any sleeping places, proofing the house with in insect nets to prevent mosquitoes from entering inside the house at any time. People should wear such clothing that our full body is covered, also if these cloths are thick, they will totally protect us from mosquito bites. To prevent from its vector, it is advisable to keep your home and surroundings clean without any water contamination in or around your house. Close or cover all the pits, man holes and drainages at your home backyards. The use of mosquito repellants will help mostly inside your house. While travelling outside it is advisable to apply anti mosquito lotions on exposed areas of the human body. There is no effective cure for the YFV, only supportive care with few antibiotics and other precautionary drugs is prescribed to deal with the YFV affected persons. Mostly the Ribavirin is used to treat these patients. The paracetamol and Acetylsalicylic acid is given to rehydrate and get relief from pains and stop internal bleeding in patients.

Research and Development

There are many research and developmental activities carried out in African and South American countries, where Yellow fever is prominently seen. Some very good results are achieved in curbing mosquito population in these countries by adopting the latest machines and sanctioned chemicals to eradicate or get rid of mosquitoes in thickly populated living areas. So far the Ribavirin is used to reduce the Yellow fever infection in humans. This antiviral drug is used all over the world since its discovery in the 1970s. There is no vaccine developed so far to treat the YFV. Only various animal tests are going on and no test is conducted on its patients so far. The research is also carried out on the types of mosquitoes causing YFV in the forest and in urban human settlement areas. Currently, with the eradication of mosquitoes, fewer cases of YFV are reported among people living in the epidemic prone region.

History of Yellow Fever

It is believed that this Yellow fever was prominent where the slave trade happened in the medieval times. The ships which brought slaves and other trading materials do brought the YVF entry to the new regions. It was a common disease in the African countries. This was first noticed in Central America in the 18th century AD. This was also reported by many of the colonial provinces of African continent owned by the European countries. But the outbreak was reported as influenza. The first epidemic was seen in Barbados in the year 1647, which was an island and was totally a surprise to see this new viral disease there. Till 1930 many epidemics broke out in Europe, African continent and Central America. There was a loss of 30% of the population during these three centuries. Since 1930s few antiviral drugs did some relief to reduce the mortality rate all over the world. Since then, many health organizations including the W.H.O. came out with various programs to curb this killer disease.

Conclusion

Yellow fever in the initial stages is treatable, but if not treated due to ignorance will lead to the toxic phase causing damage to the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which may cause death in the later phase. Local authority and health departments should employ various latest available techniques to evade mosquito population in the residential areas and in the wilds. If peoples are travelling to YFV prone countries, they are advised to get vaccinated first before leaving for these new regions. When such symptoms are seen, it is always advisable to consult with a physician and get treated properly, since its second phase will definitely cause death if not medicated with antiviral drugs. Peoples living in YFV epidemic prone regions must be more careful than the people living in the rest of the regions. Asian countries are a bit free from the YFV, as the type of mosquitoes which spreads YFV infection are not seen in these regions.